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Paskanov S.V. Vladivostok 1994

  1. Intro
  2. History
  3. First chapter
    1. Meaning and matter of BU-XIE categories
      1. Meaning of BU-XIE categories (to be continued...)


For successful results while practice acupuncture, it is need to know and be able to apply all components of this study. This is general theory of organism regulation by means of mechanical kinds of irritating of the active points (includes knowing of theories of Yin-Yang and WU-XING), common theory of cycles (study of Five transformations - Six Qi) and l theory of the cycles of organism (enabling-disabling meridians, opening-closing of points), anatomy of human from the positions of Chinese medicine (meridional diagram, types and characteristic of Qi, blood, semen-Jing, and psycho-consciousness Shen), the tools for operate on points (includes raw materials for cauterization), principles and methods of operating on points (Bu-Xie theory, technical methods).

However, even knowledge of these most important component parts yet does not give the possibility to successfully practice and to obtain stable results, since there is another important specific of Chinese zhengjiu-therapy, which is complicates its application by European specialists. This specific consists in fact that the using specific (concrete) methods (actions) and operations with needles is designed for Chinese syndromes, which are still appears a Terra incognita for European specialists.

In ancient China, the Chinese doctors have specializations, the zhengjiu specialist considers as specialist of the highest qualification. Zhengjiu doctor must to know the complete theory of Chinese medicine. In this connexion it should be noted that there exists a specific sequence of studying the zhengjiu. Determined by centuries, plan for studying the zhengjiu, facilitate the adoption of these practical medical method.

The history of zhengjiu in Europe is very short interval of time. So far the insertion of this study in European medicine was spontaneous due some reasons. And only in last 10-20 years began some attempts to organize this process. At present we cannot say about existence of European school of zhengjiu, this means that we cannot have methodology of teaching of zhengjiu-therapeutists. Today the wide training of such specialists in the countries those traditionally using this method is impossible due two interrelated reasons: linguistic barrier and lack of knowledge (!) of theoretical base of Chinese medicine. Without first, it is impossible to get to know the basis, while without second it is almost impossible to master the zhengjiu. Only by solving the two tasks, we can say about effective training of European specialists in countries that traditionally using zhengjiu. In order to solve these two tasks, should be combined the efforts of two distant from each other specialists - sinologists and physicians. In our country (Russia, interpreter note) these tasks is solving very slow (almost not solving), the research papers are not announced by decades, and medics are forced to use information, which is translated from second or even third language.

In this article will be examined the basic principles of theory of Bu-Xie and practical methods of operating with needle, allowing to achieve the effect of Bu or Xie (adding or dispersing Qi energy in organism).


During entire development period traditional Chinese medicine enormous amount of works was written about zhengjiu-theraoy and including Bu-Xie. It suffices to say that contemporary Chinese explanatory dictionary has more than 250 names of only prime treatises, while there is 29 poems-collections (statement of practical material written in verse for ease of studying) dedicated to this matter. Certainly, it is impossible translate and analyze at least the tenth part of these enormous amount of canonical literature. It will be sufficient for us to familiarize with several fundamental treatises and with modern Chinese literature of this matter. As the canonical source, traditionally comes next treatises:

("Huang-di laws about internal". "Suwen" and "Lingshu" books). At present it consists of tho books - "Suwen" and "Lingshu". It is supposed that these books were written by several different authors during Chunqiu-Zhanguo (722-221 b.c.)

("Laws [of cycles] Jia-Yi in zhenjiu") written by Huang Fumi in 256-259. Bu-Xie is in chapters 4,5,6.

("Laws of Huang-di about 81 difficulties") written by Bian Jue (Qin Yueren) during period of Wei dynasty (220-264) and Jin (265-420). Bu-Xie is in 69-81 difficulties.

("Complete collection [of questions] of zhenjiu") written in 1601 by Yan Jizhou. This is the largest reference of all aspects of zhenjiu. Main information about Bu-Xie is in fourth chapter.

From entire enormous amount of modern literature, it is more convenient for European specialist to use reference and glossary literature, since all other are written on the basis of the classical sources that was named above.

Vladivostok sinologist V.Fadin first in our country (Russia) start to study the problems of Bu-Xie. As early as 1976 he wrote the analytical review article "Theory and practice of possession of needle the Bu-Xie". The article was written based on the materials of "Zhenjiu dacheng" treatise, and, in spite of small volume, it is today the most serious source about this theme in the Russian language. Unfortunately, up to now the article is not published.

In 1990-1991 one representative of Vladivostok sinologistic school, B. Vinogrodskiy-Kurnosov carried almost complete translation of the "Zhenjiu dacheng" treatise. This work deserves highest evaluation on international level. Unfortunately, it also was not published, although it is cited somewhere.

In 1991 in our country released the translation of "Nanjin" (russian name "Difficulties of classical Chinese medicine"), that was carried out by D. Dubrovin. We will restrain from its detailed evaluation, however, one should say that it cannot be the manual to the practice.

In this year also released a review article written by A.M. Ovechkin named "The basis of zhen-jiu therapy", which is shortly describes six base and 2 complex methods of the achievement of effects of Bu-Xie,and furthermore the basic technical methods of possession of needle very briefly given.

Finally, in 1992 the book "Secrets of Chinese medicine" released, that is result of the collaboration between Chinese scientific Khalmurada Upura and Russian physician V. Nachaty. In this book to Bu-Xie problem devoted only 2 pages, what is clearly insufficient, if if one considers that in the Chinese encyclopedia of zhenjiu ("Zhenjiu da cheng") to Bu-Xie devoted more than hundred pages of hieroglyphic (!) text.

For writing this article following works are used:

1. Yan Jizhou: "Zhenjiu da cheng jiao fan", Peking, 1984 (commented reedition of "Large collection on zhen jiu" from 1601).
2. Zhenjiu ci dian" (chargeable editor Wang Xuetai), Shanghai, 1987 ([explanatory] Dictionary about zhenjiu study).
3. Shiyoug zhenyiu da juan" (under edition by Liu Hanyin). Peking, 1988. ("Large collection on the questions of practical zhen jiu).


First chapter

1. Meaning and matter of Bu-Xie categories


Meaning of Bu-Xie categories

D.A. Dubrovin gives the value "tonify" for Bu hieroglyph and "sedation" for Xie hieroglyph.

A.M. Ovechkin calls these methods as "stimulation" and "sedation".

V.S. Fadin writes "In modern literature these methods [Bu-Xie] are known as "tonification-oppression", or "agitation-slowdown". However, the direct translation of these terms means:

Bu - reinforcement, aid;

Xie - let out, slacken.

In this article we will use only Bu and Xie terms, which the reader can understand any of the values which we gave to them.

Khalmurad Upur in book "Secrets of Chinese medicine" calls Bu-Xie methods as "agitation-slowdown".

Let us give the more complete enumeration of the meanings of these two hieroglyphs according to the four-volume Chinese-Russian dictionary edited by I.M. Oshanin:

Bu -

  1. to patch up, to darn, to repair, to overhaul;
  2. to complete, to fill, to supplement;
  3. to assign (to the post), to fill (vacancy)
  4. to support, to help, to render aid;
  5. to correct (error), to compensate;
  6. addition, additional information;
  7. benefit, benefit, the material prosperity

(5, v.3, p.219)

Xie -

  1. to flow, to pour out, to issue, to throw out; to pour, to give to flow, to get down;
  2. to fill, to pour, to pour;
  3. leak, to flow, to be poured out, to be issued, to emerge, to flow, to spill, to flow, to be borne by flow;
  4. to have diarrhea, purgative;
  5. to lose moisture, to be deprived of water, to dry, to be emptied, to be cleaned, to become poor, to be wasted;
  6. liquid, watery, diluted
  7. barren, exhausted, that dried,

(5, v.3, p.485)

European terms "agitation-sedation" imply, first of all, the changes of the state of organs and organism as a whole. By themselves, these terms a self-sufficient for characterizing of system or its parts, and do not require additions. Chinese terms, Bu and Xie always imply grammatical addition; in other words, terms Bu and Xie should be translated as verbs, because actually treatise are always discussed the actions of Bu and Xie relatively to Qi-energy.

In Chinese text some specific expressions are constantly encountered: "to weaken the Humidity of spleen", "to remove the Wind of the liver", "to eliminate the Cold of kidneys" and so on. Actually this indicates: make Xie for spleen Yin (simultaneously make Bu for spleen Yang), make Xie for liver Yang (simultaneously make Bu for liver Yin), make Xie for kidneys Yin (simultaneously make Bu for kidneys Yang).

It should be noted that when it speaks "weaken the Humidity of spleen", means that not the spleen itself suffers from the surplus of humidity (mucus), but that the main function of spleen (in number of five organs-depositories), consists exactly in maintaining of humidity, is begin to dominate above the functions of other organs. This inserts an unbalance into equilibrium of system. In this case the redundancy of Humidity of spleen will suppress the Cold of kidneys, and this means that of this type unbalanced state of cold and heat for the European doctor will indicate the functional disturbances/breakdowns of kidneys. During the treatment European doctor will directly act on nephritic system, but the Chinese doctor will make Xie for the spleen and Bu for the kidneys (moreover precisely Xie first).

It is known from the theory of traditional Chinese medicine about existence of several forms of Qi. As for the human organism, first of all, it is Qi of Primordial Sky (in other words, ancestral Qi-energy) and Qi of Successive Sky (complex Qi, that is generating by human organism as result of the consumption of food, water and air).

Ancestral Qi is obtaining from parents at the moment of conception, and expends it the entire remaining life more or less intensive.

Complex Qi is dividing on Feeding Qi [Ying-Qi], which is situated inside the body, and Guarding Qi [Wei-Qi] which is situated on skin surface.

Feeding Qi ensures health by means of saturation of all structure organs of human organism with already transformed nutrients.

Guarding Qi ensures healthy state of human organism by preventing insertion of external pathogens.

Thereto, there exists Qi energy of environment, which changes behaviors cyclical (by five and six seasons). This is the Qi of Wind, Qi of Heat, Qi of Moisture, Qi of Aridity, Qi of Cold. Each of these Qi can appear as a cause illness. This happens due two reasons - objective and subjective.

Subjective reason consists in the fact that the persons, who does not note cyclic variations in environment, will conduct the means of life (incorrect nourishment, the incorrect nature of activity, incorrect viewpoint), that finally leads to disease.

Objective reason consists in the fact that each year of the sixty-year-old cycle of JIA-ZI is unfavorable for the specific types of the human organism (total it is counted 25 Yin-Yang types of human organism). If the corresponding person does not undertakes protective actions, then disease to him is guaranteed.

In connection with this, Chinese medicine divide the Qi of environment (independently to dividing on the seasons Qi, to this devoted study of Five transformations - Six Qi energies) on ZHEN-QIi and XIE-QI (XIE in BU-XIE term, is not the same to XIE-QI). Europeans interpreters these terms translate as True Qi and False Qi. Actually this translation is not completely exact. It is more correct to translate term Zhen - as Straight (Right, True Qi), and term Xie-Qi - as Deformated (Distorted Qi).

What is straightness-curvature of Qi ?

Straightness is the integrity of Qi energy flow, existence of balance of it component parts. Curvature - it is unbalance of Qi flow, change of ratio of it component parts. The integrity of Qi flow insures the arrival of Qi to it destination. The curvature of Qi flow is tend to dividing of component parts of Qi and their self-dependent interaction with tissue of internal organs. As result Qi is not arrive, or arrive incompletely to destination.

Let us give the translation of small fragment from the treatise of Li Shizen "Bencao gang mu":

"Li Shizen said:

The Sky creates. The Soil transforms
As a result the grasses and trees are born.

When solid penetrates the soft, then roots and tubers are formed.
When soft penetrates the solid, the stems and boles are formed.

Leaves and cups relate to Yang.
Flowers and fruits relate to Yin.

Therefore among the grasses there are [which possessing the qualities] of trees, and among the trees there are [which possessing the qualities] of grasses.
Those which received Qi completely - are food, those which received deformed Qi (bent) - are poisons.


there are 5 elements: [Tree, Fire, Soil, Metal, Water],
there are 5 Qi: [Wind, Heat, Moisture, Aridity, Cold],
there are 5 colors: [blue, red, yellow, white, black],
there are 5 tastes: [sour, bitter, sweet, hot, salty],
there are 5 qualities: [cold, cool, hot, warm, normal],
there are 5 [means] of application: [raising up-lowering down, floating-immersion, tend to medium].

(4, juan 12, p. 80)

To be continued...

Copyrights ©Paskanov S.V.

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